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What is the difference between a preface, a foreword, and an introduction?

And what about the other parts of a book: How does each function and in what order do they appear?

by Pat McNees. (Revised 3-16-23)


What is the difference between a preface, a foreword, and an introduction?
Others on foreword, preface and introduction

The standard order of parts of the book
Acknowledgments page
What goes on the copyright page
When to use a prologue and epilogue
The index.

What is the difference between a preface, a foreword, and an introduction?

There is considerable confusion about the difference between the three, and judging from what the Chicago Style Manual says I mixed the two up myself in my history of the NIH Clinical Center, where an editor changed my Introduction into a Foreword, which I then changed to a Preface. It should have been an Introduction.


The foreword, says the Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS), is usually written by someone other than the author or editor, usually someone eminent (to lend credibility to the book), and although the title page may say "Foreword by X," if the foreword is only one or two pages (which is normal), the name of the foreword writer normally appears at the end of the foreword. (The foreword author's title or affiliation may also appear there.) For details on positioning of these elements, and what kind of type to use, refer to one of those two manuals, if your publisher doesn't handle the formatting.


The preface, says CMOS, is "the author's own statement about a work." It may include "reasons for undertaking the work, method of research... and sometimes permissions granted for the use of previously published material." Material about the book (its origins, for example) should be in the preface. Material about the subject matter, should be in the introduction.

Words Into Type succinctly characterizes the differences between a preface and intro: "A preface or foreword deals with the genesis, purpose, limitations, and scope of the book and may include acknowledgments of indebtedness; an introduction deals with the subject of the book, supplementing and introducing the text and indicating a point of view to be adopted by the reader. The introduction usually forms a part of the text [and the text numbering system]; the preface does not." (In other words, the arabic numbering of the book (1,2,3) starts with the introduction, if there is one. The other front matter takes i, ii, iii, etc.)


What are the purposes of a preface/intro? Here are some purposes members of the Washington Biography Group mentioned at a meeting on the topic:
• To talk about how you came to write the book, especially if that will help draw the reader into the book. Perhaps best in the preface, which is also where you would talk about why there is a new edition, etc.
• To sell the book to the potential reader/buyer (lure them, hook them, make them want to read more). In the case of Ruth Selig writing about the death of her twin, providing the personal details up front would be important, for example).
• To answer the question: why this book? why now? why this person? why by this author?
• To talk about how you got the information — what main sources (and how they differ from other books on the subject, if this is book #189 on the Kennedys, for example)
• To provide a framework for what's to follow — the hooks on which to hang the pegs of story details
• To provide, in brief, your main argument or point of view about the subject. The alternative is not to express your position clearly up front and to weave it into the fabric of the biography so that the reader has to read the book to find it. Critics may object to this. My impression is that you want to suggest your conclusions or viewpoint up front but express them more fully and strongly in the concluding chapter, if there are conclusions to be made.

Some writers feel nobody reads the introduction; some say it's important — it’s the first thing people look at. Obviously it should be done well, if the latter is true even some of the time, but some people skip it. Personally, I think it's important that everything in the book be interesting, because you never know where the reader will start. You especially want the ending to be good, so readers leave feeling satisfied and you get good word of mouth. Because online what's important or enticing should come first, I tend to put acknowledgments after the main text ends, but try to make them interesting, to give them content.

~NOTE ON SPELLING: A lot of people misspell foreword as foreward or even forward! It is a "word" be"fore" the book itself. The foreword is usually written by someone other than the author.

Others on foreword, preface and introduction

See main entry above

What’s the Difference Between a Foreword, Preface, and Introduction? (Donald Bastian, BPS Books)
Forewords, Prefaces, and Introductions: Where to Begin? (Carol Saller, Lingua Franca, The Chronicle of Higher Education 4-5-12)
Self-Publishing Basics: How to Organize Your Book’s Front Matter (Joel Friedlander, The Book Designer, 2-8-12)
Flattery and Whining (William Gass's provocative essay on how prefaces are different from other forematter--such as prologues and forewords--as part of his review of The Book of Prefaces , edited by Alasdair Gray.
Grammar Girl on Forward vs. Foreword (plus Geoff Pope's concise explanations of Foreword, Preface, Introduction, and Prologue, plus Afterword and Epilogue)
• On Wikipedia see preface, foreword, and introduction.
The Book of Prefaces by Alasdair Gray

See also
The Difference Between an Autobiography (or "Memoirs") and a Memoir

The standard order of parts of the book

Many of which are optional:

Half title page [title only] (page i)
Blank (or Also by the author, Also in the series etc., or frontispiece) (page ii)
Title page (page iii)
Copyright (page iv)
Epigraph (or before main text)
Table of contents (Contents)
[List of] Illustrations [optional, may be subdivided into types of illustrations, such as figures, illustrations, maps]
List of tables [including genealogical charts, family trees, which often go in front of book, or on end pages, for easy reference]
List of maps

• Foreword (not "forward" or "foreward"--a "word before")
• Editor's preface
• Author's preface, or
• Preface [and Acknowledgments] (to the extent that the boring stuff goes at the back of the book, most acknowledgments should probably go in back matter; if there is an old preface and a new preface, the new preface goes first).

The prefaces and foreword are not integral to the book and are numbered separately, along with other front matter, with lower-case roman numerals: i, ii, iii, iv, etc., starting with the book's opening page (but most of these page numbers won't appear). Some of these rules are broken in ebooks, for which there is often much less front matter.
Abbreviations (or in back matter)
Chronology (or in back matter)

• Introduction (page 1, if integral to text; part of front matter and roman page number, if not)
• Prologue (common in plays, rare in nonfiction books--see notes below)
• Epigraph (on opening chapter titles and/or on title or copyright page)
• Another half-titled (optional, used especially if there is extensive front matter)
• Text [may include Chapters within Parts]

• Epilogue (common in plays, rare in nonfiction books)
• Afterword (not "afterward")
• Conclusions


and author's notes.

BACK MATTER: [these are all optional]
• Acknowledgments, if not part of Preface [After conclusions or before or after bibliography; may include extended permissions credits] [note American spelling--no "e" before "ments"]
• Appendix, appendices
• Chronology (if not in front matter)
• Abbreviations (if not in front matter)
• Glossary

• Endnotes (headed Notes)
• Bibliography, reference list (sources)

• Suggested reading (or after Conclusions)
• List of contributors
• Illustration credits (if not in captions)
• Index(es)
• Errata
• Colophon, optional (bibliographical note about design, designer, typography, other general info about book production "this was a special printing, etc.")
• Authors' or editors' bio at very back and/or on back flap copy (but remember that the jacket cover often gets separated from the book itself)

See more on Sequence of parts of book

What goes on the copyright page
Acknowledgments page
Parts of the book (nature and sequence of)
Other parts of the book (About the Author page, etc.)

What goes on the copyright page?

What goes on the copyright page? The copyright line (with the symbol ©, or the word Copyright, or both), the year of publication of this edition, and the name of the copyright holder (which may or may not be the name of the author)   

      Copyright © 2013 Pat McNees [or] © 2013 Pat McNees

      Copyright © 1995, 2005, 2013

Include copyright dates of previous editions and dates of copyright renewal.

Followed by: All rights reserved


Publication date and publishing history (if applicable).

      Eg., First edition published 1999. Fourth edition 2005. Seventh edition 2013.

      Printed in [country of printing—usually] the United States of America


Printers key. A string of numbers arranged to indicate the number and year of current printing, in such a way that you need only lop off a number on each end to indicate (reducing chance of printer error). Irrelevant with print-on-demand books.

       02 01 00 99 97 96 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3


International Standard Book Number (ISBN) identifies the publisher, the language group of the country the book is published in, and the specific title. It is also used to generate the scannable barcode found on the back cover of most books sold in the United States today.


For translations, the title of the original and the publisher and copyright.


Paper durability statement. This paper meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper). [Coated and uncoated papers that meet the standards for alkalinity, folding and tearing, and paper stock are authorized to carry that notice (or any reasonable variation thereof), and should include the circled infinity symbol.]


Space permitting: Acknowledgments, permissions, and other credits (photos, editor, designer, proofreader, indexer, etc.) may begin here and continue in back matter—if so, give page number where they pick up again. Some companies insist on credits appearing on copyright page.


Cataloging-in-Publication Data (CIP)   See separate section on this....


The Copyright Page (Joel Friedlander, Self-Publishing Basics, The Book Designer, 10-28-09) Where it goes, what has to be on it, what else you'll find there.
How To Make Life Easy For Librarians So Your Book Gets In Libraries (Laura Carruba, IdeaTrash, 1-10-14) If you want your book catalogued, know what the most important pieces of information are: "A good title page lists the full title of the book, the author’s preferred name, the publisher, and the place of publication." Or put the publisher and publication information on the verso (back side of the title page) along with copyright dates and ISBN. Read Carruba's piece to know what else to be sure to do.
Copyright Page Requirements for Books Printed Overseas (Joanne Bolton, Self-Publishing Basics, The Book Designer, 11-12-09)
Copyright Page Samples You Can Copy and Paste Into Your Book (Joel Friedlander, Self-Publishing Basics, The Book Designer, 1-15-10)
Copyright, work for hire, and other rights (a full page about copyright)

Acknowledgments page

Note spelling:  Acknowledgments (two e's total, no e after the g)

Thank You to the Author's Many, Many Important Friends--or, How the acknowledgments page became the place to drop names--not! (Noreen Malone, New Republic, 3-7-13). Overdone “Acknowledgments” can be viewed in Sheryl Sandberg’s book, Lean In: Women, Work, and the Will to Lead, a 172-page book for which she thanks 140 people.
Why Don’t Books Have a Credits Page? (Kelly Jensen, Book Riot, 11-4-21) "Among those listed in the credits page are not only the editor, agent, and publisher, but the slate of sales, marketing, and publicity people who helped put the book in front of readers. The book’s designers are listed, as are those who negotiate foreign rights and sales, copy editors, and even the team who worked on the audiobook edition of the novel. Every person who played a role in the book, be it replying to an email or being hands-on through months of editing, is seen as a vital part of the book’s creation." She shows an example. Great idea!
Authors, like Oscar winners, should keep their acknowledgements short (Stuart Evers, Guardian blog, 9-2-10). Why do writers whose prose is clean and clear turn into gushing Kate Winslets in the thank-you pages of their books?
How To Write Your Book Acknowledgments (Tucker Max, Scribe, 7-19-19) Make it good for the people the are naming, who will read it. Group people by category, so that you are more likely to remember them.
Always Read the Acknowledgments Page (Grace Bialecki on Jane Friedman's page, 3-1-23) While writers write alone, it takes a village to create a book and these final pages of gratitude are an important reminder of all that teamwork.
Against Acknowledgments (Sam Sacks, New Yorker, 8-24-12) "This undercurrent of faux-modest self-promotion runs like a viral strain throughout every acknowledgments page. After the professional shout-outs, then, comes the collegial name-dropping, when writers thank the published novelists who taught at their M.F.A. programs or lectured at their writers’ retreats." (He is writing about acknowledgments pages for novels.)

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The sequence and order of the parts of book

Joel Friedlander's Unabridged List of the Parts of a Book, one of many great resources on a wonderful page of articles by The Book Designer (he was clearly far more than that).
Book Parts edited by Dennis Duncan and Adam Smyth. "...a Gray's Anatomy for the bookish" -- Sam Sacks, Wall Street Journal. "book history as anatomy" -- James Waddell
Industry Standards Checklist for a Professionally Published Book (Independent Book Publishers Association, IBPA). See also this secondary checklist, with more sample covers (showing where parts of the cover go)
The Order of Things (Jack Lyon, An American Editor, 3-16-15) "Is the way books are put together merely a matter of convention? Or is the convention a result of the underlying principle of reading order?"
Anatomy of a Book: The Contents (e.g., title page, copyright page -- Barbara Doyen, literary agent, 2010). See also Anatomy of a Book: The Physical Parts (e.g., dust jacket, spine).
Anachronisms and Dysfunctions of eBook Front and Back Matter (Eric Hellman, Go to Hellman, 2-8-13)
What do readers really want from e-book frontmatter and endmatter? (Suw Charman-Anderson, Futurebook blog, The Bookseller)
How to number the pages of the front matter (SPAN's answers to self-publishers' frequently asked questions (FAQ)
Parts of a Book How many of these elements does your book design have? (Jacci Howard Bear, About.com)
The Title Page (Joel Friedlander, 2-1-10)
This Post is Intentionally Left Blank(Academia Obscura) The phrase “This Page is Intentionally Left Blank” is ubiquitous in the world of printed text, appearing most notably in instruction manuals and exam papers. It is generally accepted that its purpose is to indicate that the page on which it appears is purposely bereft of content. Yet the very inclusion of this phrase nullifies its intent: the page is no longer blank.
ISBN 101 For Self-Publishers (Joel Friedlander, 11-19-10)
Deciphering the Bookland EAN Bar Code (Joel Friedlander, 10-22-09)
How to Make a Book: The Interior and Body of a Book (Creative Minds Press)

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Book Parts edited by Dennis Duncan and Adam Smyth. "...a Gray's Anatomy for the bookish" -- Sam Sacks, Wall Street Journal. "book history as anatomy" -- James Waddell
How to Write an Author Bio Page (Book edits by Jessi Hoffman)
Secrets of successful book covers and titles
Developing a selling book title
Writing Your Book’s Back-Cover Copy (Jessi Rita Hoffman on Jane Friedman's blog, 8-13-15)

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The Index

Every non-fiction book needs an index: Here’s why (Alan Rinzler's blog, The Book Deal: An Inside View of Publishing)
Indexing: Why and How
Editors, How Much Is an Index Worth to You? (American Society of Indexers)
Authors, How Much Is an Index Worth to You? (American Society of Indexers)
• ***Index, A History of the: A Bookish Adventure from Medieval Manuscripts to the Digital Age by Dennis Duncan. "Dennis Duncan’s history―from Socrates to software―along with Paula Clarke Bain’s peerless index, is witty and personable throughout, and also serves as a sneak attack on the search engine. It’s safe to say that you will never take an index for granted again."--Mary Norris
The Invention of the Index (NY Times Book Review podcast) Dennis Duncan and Pamela Paul discuss Duncan's Index, A History of the  (listen to or read this conversation with the author)
Linchpindex: The missing index for Seth Godin's "Linchpin" (a quirky online index for Seth Godin's book Linchpin: Are You Indispensable?

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When does one use a prologue or epilogue?

Linda Lear wrote a prologue (a term from dramaturgy) to start her biography of Rachel Carson (Rachel Carson: Witness for Nature. A prologue is an act, scene, event, or development that precedes the main action of the book. It may start the action and be PART of the action, though it could take place in the middle of the action — may be a pivotal moment.

     "If you have a prologue, you must also have an epilogue," says Marc Pachter -- as in classical drama. (Clearly, some writers don't agree, especially with a novel.)


The Great Debate: To Prologue or Not to Prologue? (Meg LaTorre-Snyder, Writer's Digest) Literary agent apprentice Meg LaTorre-Snyder shares the pros and cons of writing prologues, the types of prologues, and how to get the most out of them. "As many of you know, book publishing industry professionals and readers alike have openly expressed their dislike of prologues." The question is: Does a prologue improve my story?

      Prologue Don'ts include: Don't use a prologue as a place for a massive information dump. Don't be boring. Don't write a prologue that has nothing to do with the story. etc... And the sole purpose of the prologue shouldn't be to hook the reader into the story.
What is a prologue (and epilogue)? Examples and tips (Jordan, Now Novel) With fiction, a prologue might explain your fictional world (Tolkien explains the world of hobbits);

show events key to your main story (Paula Hawkins shows a drowning core to the main elements of Into the Water;"create riddling intrigue (a single partially-explained event outside the main, immediate action creates lingering questions)."
Does Your Book Really Need a Prologue or Epilogue? (Writer's Relief, 3-12-21) Don't "create an action-packed, attention-grabbing prologue to make up for the fact that their first chapter is slow-moving." If it is, make details from your prologue part of that chapter.

      Don't info dump and turn readers off before they reach the first chapter. "If a prologue will help you create an intriguing circumstance or introduce suspense in a way you couldn’t do otherwise, consider using one!"
Why Prologues Get a Bad Rap (Tiffany Yates Martin on Jane Friedman's blog, 11-14-22) Each unsuccessful prologue is unsuccessful in its own way, but what they have in common is often that they are used as some form of “cheat”—shortcutting the actual work of storytelling to circumvent potential pitfalls. Why prologues often fail: Read about dumping backstory, starting the story in medias res, the bait and switch, the preamble/stage setter/dramatis personae, the rabbit hole.
Writing 101: How to Write a Prologue (Master Class) "A good prologue performs one of many functions in a story:
---Foreshadowing events to come.
---Providing background information or backstory on the central conflict.
---Establishing a point of view (either the main character's, or that of another character who is privy to the tale)

---Setting the tone for the rest of the novel or play.


An epilogue provides comments outside the main action that give insight into what happened. The main actions in the book may take place in one period, for example, and the reader will want to know what happened afterward. That kind of follow-up could appear in an epilogue.

What Is the Definition of Epilogue? (Master Class) No, it's not the same thing as an Afterword. It's more like a final part of the story, after or outside of the main story. Includes three things an epilogue should do, five good examples of epilogues for famous novels, and four templates for an epilogue.
Epilogue (Wikipedia) Lots of useful links.
What Is an Epilogue: Four Powerful Tips for Writers (Reedsy) An epilogue is a section of writing at the end of a book that takes place outside of the setting, perspective, or frame of the story. It’s often intended to provide closure and resolution by explaining what happens after the main narrative arc has come to an end. As it’s in the main body of the text, the epilogue is still part of the story. Useful examples for common questions.

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