Specialized and niche writing

Organizations and resources for writing specialties
(including animals, autos, bowling, children's books,
food, gardens, family history, jazz,
résumés, sports, travel, Web writing, and wine)

Subcultures within subcultures! An association of Fantasy Sports Writers? the American Night Writers? One could spend all day just looking at websites of people who write about vehicles (why so may auto writers associations, and so regionally organized?).

And why is there no website for the Aviation/​Space Writers’ Association (17 S. High Street, Suite 124, Columbus, OH 43215, (614) 681-1900)?. Shouldn't writers about a high-tech industry be on the World Wide Web? Cat writers have a website.

Why are children's books and night writers and sportswriters grouped together? Because the template for this website allows only "50 works" (in this case resources) and I was running out of slots!

American Night Writers Association (ANWA) (ANWA, a network for writers who belong to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, LDS)

American Songwriter. Their Legal Corner looks helpful.

Asian American Writers' Workshop (AAWW, an arts organization devoted to the creating, publishing, developing and disseminating of creative writing by Asian Americans– dedicated to the belief that Asian American stories deserve to be told)

Association of Literary Scholars, Critics, and Writers (ALSCW)

Association of Personal Historians (APH), The Life Story People. Personal historians help others tell their life or family stories in print, audio, or video, and sometimes all three.

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Binders Full of Women (Facebook group--name based on a phrase Mitt Romney used during his run for president). See Binders Full of Women Writers: can a secret Facebook group be inclusive? (Caty Enders, The Guardian, 8-5-15) Can an online ‘safe space’ be both selective and preoccupied with inclusivity? That’s a question Binders Full of Women Writers is trying to sort out after a member published an article about the Facebook group.

Biographers International Organization (BIO), chiefly a U.S. literary organization devoted to biographers and biography (memoirists participate too)

Black Writers

Children's Writers. Above all, go to the website of the Society of Children’s Book Writers & Illustrators. See section below on Children's Book Publishing

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Criminal Justice Journalists (CJJ), which has an interactive forum/​community. Also of possible interest:
The Crime Report (your complete criminal justice source)
Crime and Justice News (your daily newsfeed)
Cop Link (resource for police writers and others with law enforcement interests)
Investigative Reporters and Editors (IRE) (a great organization for investigative reporters)

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Erotica Readers & Writers Association

Garden Writers of America (GWA)

Historical Writers of America (for writers of historical fiction or nonfiction, all genres)

Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA), best known for its Golden Globe Awards (presented weeks before the Academy Awards are presented)

Humor Writers of America . Presumably Jordan Carr's New Yorker story would qualify: Can We Try Breaking Up Again, for the Sake of My Memoir? (6-21-16). And this: How to Make White People Laugh Negin Farsad's memoir on race, identity, and comedy.

Hollywood Network (Warning: I am not really sure what this is about)

HTML Writers Guild (for HTML design originators, writing for the Web). Provides online training in Web design and development. Absorbed International Webmasters Association.

International Society of Family History Writers and Editors ( (ISFHWE, formerly Council of Genealogy Columnists), to encourage excellence in writing and editorial standards in genealogical publishing.
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Jazz Journalists Association (JJA) , which has hosted several webinars on jazz journalism, which you can listen to free, online, including Writing Jazz Biographies .

Legal Writing Institute (LWI)

Military Reporters & Editors (MRE), to advance public understanding of the military, national security and homeland defense, to represent the interests of working journalists to the government and military; and to assure that journalists have access to places where the U.S. military and its allies operate.

Military Writers Society of America (MWSA -- authors, poets, and artists drawn together by the common bond of military service)

Nashville Songwriters Association International (NSAI, "It all began with a song")

National Association of Independent Writers and Editors (NAIWE)

National Book Critics Circle (NBCC, and the blog of its board of directors, Critical Mass
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National Résumé Writers' Association (NRWA)

New York Financial Writers’ Association, Inc. (NYFWA)

North American Agricultural Journalists (agricultural editors and writers)

Organizations for biographers, memoirists, and personal historians

Peace Corps Writers (a division of Peace Corps Worldwide) This isn't really a writers organization but there is material of interest for writers about the Peace Corps.

Police Writers

Public Safety Writers Association (formerly Police/​Public Safety Writers Association)

Scribes (The American Society of Legal Writers)

Songwriters Guild of America (SGA)

Southern California Restaurant Writers (SCRWm bestows annual awards, to encourage better restaurant reviews)

United Nations Correspondents Association (UNCA)

U.S. Marine Corps Combat Correspondents Association (USMCCCA)

White House Correspondents' Association (WHCA)

Women Writing Women's Lives Biography Seminar (roughly 70 women in New York metropolitan area engaged in writing book-length biographies and memoirs). See WWWL blog and videos of past events.
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Writers' Trust of Canada

Writer UA, the Conference for Software User Assistance

Automotive press organizations

Eastern Motorsport Press Association (EMPA)
Motor Press Guild (MPG)
New England Motor Press Association (NEMPA)
Northwest Automotive Press Association (NWAPA) , for members of the automotive media (newspaper, magazine, radio, media groups, and Internet), representatives of automotive manufacturers, and related industry professionals
Texas Auto Writers Association (TAWA)
Truck Writers of North America (TWNA, pronounced "tuna," a Facebook page
Washington Automotive Press Association
Western Automotive Journalists (WAJ)
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Children's Book Publishing (writing for children)

Society of Children’s Book Writers and Illustrators (SCBWI). Start here, explore the site's excellent resources, and look up local chapters. This is a specialty you WANT to learn about from practitioners with experience.
Canadian Society of Children's Authors, Illustrators, and Performers (CANSCAIP)
Kid Lit (Mary Kole's website on how to write and publish children's and YA books)
So You Wrote a Children’s Book—What’s Next? (Carol Fisher Saller, The Subversive Copy Editor, 5--6-17) Excellent basic advice.
Children's Writer's & Illustrator's Market (Cris Freese, Writer's Digest)
The Next Wave of Children's Bookstores: Part One (Judith Rosen, Publishers Weekly, 12-12-17). And Part Two: Getting Political (12-14-17)
Children's Book Agents and Artist's Representatives: a Guide by Harold Underdown
Getting Out of the Slush Pile [for Children's Books]by Harold Underdown
20 great resources for aspiring writers of children's books
Children's Book Guild of Washington D.C. (as well as Maryland and North Virginia)
Top 10 Frequently Asked Questions about Children's Book Publishing (SCBWI)
Children's Writer's & Illustrator's Market , ed. Chuck Sambuchino. Reviewed by Harold Underdown, who reviews other relevant books, too.
Middle Grade or Young Adult? (Christine Ma, Copyediting, 2-16-17) Middle grade books are geared to readers 8 to 12; young adult (YA) books are aimed at readers 13 and up. But that's not all that helps define the labels.
From Keyboard to Printed Page (basics on formatting your writing and sending it out--SCBWI)
The Business of Writing for Children (Tips on Writing Children's Books and Publishing Them, or How to Write, Publish, and Promote a Book for Kids) by Aaron Shephard
Making It: Children's Books by Peter Barnes (Elizabeth Chang, Washington Post Magazine, about journalist developing niche writing and publishing children's books about vacation sites)
Children's Books (JC Publishers, Go for the Gold section). Ted Bowman offers concise explanation of wWhy children's books, which require illustrations, are not good candidates for print-on-demand self-publishing--and there are other good author resources on his site)
Rachelle Burk's Resources for Children's Writers
• The Institute of Children's Literature publishes a useful newsletter ($20 a year) for children's book writers, but also provides many useful articles and transcripts free onlne, at Rx for Writers (a topical index for articles and transcripts on writing for children)
What Children (and Everyone Else) Need to Read Donna Jo Napoli's excellent TEDxswarthmore talk, 4-3-12. "Children's books often are banned because people feel that the vulnerability of childhood gives them the right and responsibility to protect children. They see books that touch on certain topics as dangerous. Although the motivations of these adults are understandable, Napoli argues that the top 12 reasons why books are banned are actually reasons why books should be read. She will discuss what these books do for the unprotected child and the protected child.
The Purple Crayon. Harold Underdown's site about the business of writing, editing, illustrating, and publishing children's books, with articles about many topics, including \
~The Acquisition Process,
~Children's book genres,
~Basic articles (answers typical questions of people getting started in the children's publishing world)
~Resource guide (books, magazines, and other resources for writers and illustrators of children's books)
~Getting Started.
Write for Kids--Change the World (Children's Book Insider)
Children's Book Council
FAQs About Children's Writing (Anne LeMieux, David Lubar and Marilyn Singer, Writing World--the FAQ written for the AOL Chidren's Writers Chat on AOL, which no longer exists). Plus more articles and interviews about writing for this age group (Writing-World.com)
Types of Publishers (and what to expect of them -- SCBWI)
JacketFlap (connects you to the work of more than 200,000 authors, illustrators, publishers and other creators of books for children and young adults)
Margot Finke's Monthly "Musings" (guidance to people getting started in the children's publishing world, articles from 2002 to 2008)
From the Editor's Desk (Bantam Delacorte Dell editor Beverly Horowitz answers the questions most frequently asked by writers of children's books)
FAQs About Children's Writing (Jon Bard, Children's Book Insider, Right-Writing.com)
Writing Tips from the Highlights Foundation Writers Workshop at Chautauqua (much material, from several years)
Children's Literature Web Guide
CHILDRENS-WRITING (an e-mail discussion list for children's writers and illustrators, and for anyone interested in writing or drawing for kids)
Children's Book Insider (a $ newsletter) and Children's Book Clubhouse. Video tips from same source: 7 Things Editors at Children's Book Publishers Wish Writers Knew;
Harold Underdown's fabulous page of links to relevant magazines, organizations, and websites , including
Children's Writer's & Illustrator's BlueBoard (discussions, Verla Kay's site)
Susan Raab's articles on marketing children's books
SmartWriters website for children's writers
Children's & YA Lit Resources (Cynthia Leitich Smith's site)
Children's Book Council (CBC), many helpful reading lists.
Brooklyn Arden (children’s book editor Cheryl Klein talks about the books and authors she works with and what's going on in her industry)
Editorial Anonymous (blog of a children's book editor, with entries such as How can I become a children's book editor? (4-19-09) and Do I need an agent?
Top 20 Picture Book Agents in Publishers Marketplace (Edie Hemingway, As the Eraser Burns, 9-13-10, MD/​DE/​WV region, SCBWI)
Small Presses of Color (listing of active small-press publishers or producers of multicultural materials owned and operated by people of color, compiled by the Cooperative Children's Book Center

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Food and beverage writing

"Garlic is the catsup of intellectuals."
Association of Food Journalists (AFJ)
Circle of Wine Writers
Food and Environment Reporting Network (FERN) , independent, nonprofit news organization that produces investigative reporting on food, agriculture, and environmental health
International Food, Wine & Travel Writers Association (IFWTWA)
International Association of Culinary Professionals (IACP)
Oldways (not a writing group but a nonprofit food and nutrition education organization, with a mission to inspire healthy eating through cultural food traditions and lifestyles)
Food memoirs and biographies (a list of recommended reading)
Food writing (interesting articles, tips, and books for food writers and aspiring food writers)
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Outdoor writers

Association of Great Lakes Outdoor Writers (AGLOW)
Florida Outdoor Writers Association (FOWa)
Louisiana Outdoor Writers Association (LOWA)
Michigan Outdoor Writers Association (MOWA)
New York State Outdoor Writers Association (NYSOWA)
Northwest Outdoor Writers Association (NOWA)
Outdoor Writers and Photographers Guild, UK (OWPG, writers, authors, photographers, designers, journalists, artists, illustrators, editors, broadcasters, copywriters, content-providers, lecturers, public speakers, consultants, communicators – all specializing in sustainable outdoor activities and the outdoor world)
Outdoor Writers Association of America (OWAA, writers, broadcasters, photographers, outdoor industry, and more--all passionate about the outdoors)
Outdoor Writers of Ohio (OWO)
Pennsylvania Outdoor Writers Association (POMA)
Professional Outdoor Media Association (POMA)
Southeastern Outdoor Press Association (SEOPA)
Tennessee Outdoor Writers Association (TOWA)
Texas Outdoor Writers Association (TOWA)
Virginia Outdoor Writers Association (VOWA)
The WOMA.com (The Women's Ourdoor Media Association, WOMA, the only not-for-profit media group focused on promotion of women in hunting, shooting, fishing and archery)
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Sports journalists and editors

Arena Football League Writers Association
Associated Press Sports Editors (APSE)
Association for Women in Sports Media (AWSM), with both male and female members, supports the advancement and growth of women--both sports and professional--in sports media
Fantasy Sports Writers Association (FSWA)
Football Writers Association of America (FWAA)
Golf Writers Association of America (GWAA
International Bowling Media Association (IBMA)
International Tennis Writers Association (ITWA)
Louisiana Sports Writers Association (LSWA)
National Collegiate Baseball Writers (NCBW)
National Sportscasters and Sportswriters Association (NSSA)
North American Snowsports Journalists Association (NASJA), for professional snowsports writers, authors, photographers, videographers, broadcasters and industry professionals (originally U.S. Ski Writers Association)
Philadelphia Sports Writers Association (PSWA), actual site appeared to be hacked so changed the link
Professional Basketball Writers Association (PBWA)
Sportswriters.Net (home to FWAA, USBWA, and NCBWA)
Track and Field Writers Association of America (Facebook)
Truck Writers of North America (TWNA, pronounced "tuna," a Facebook page
U.S. Basketball Writers Association (USBWA)
"The Catch" and the Birth of a 49ers Dynasty. Can anything capture sports better than this video of Joe Montana throwing a high pass to Dwight Clark does?
Writing a Sports Column Far From Print, and the Game (Noam Cohen, NY Times, 11-15-09), About Bill Simmons and sportwriting.
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Prison writing

Prison Writers "Where prisoners have a voice." What happens in prison doesn't stay in prison anymore. The most forgotten segment of our society now has a voice.
PEN Prison Writing Program
PEN's annual Prison Writing Contest (PEN's annual competition)
PEN Handbook for Writers in Prison (free for writers in prison)
Writers in Prison Network Ltd. (UK)
On Being Invisible: Our Nation's Incarcerated (Ilse Munro, Little Patuxent Review 1-9-12)
American Prison Writing Archive (Digital Humanities Initiative)
"Inside" Prison Writing Blog
American prison literature (Wikipedia)
Books about wrongful convictions and related issues

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Textbook and Academic Authors

Textbook and Academic Author Association (TAA) (the organization to join if you're writing textbooks)
Association of Literary Scholars, Critics, and Writers (ALSCW)
Association of Writers & Writing Programs (AWP, provides community, opportunities, ideas, news, and advocacy for writers and teachers of writing.)
Teachers and Writers Collaborative (TWI, a New York group whose volunteers boost the teaching of writing, the educating of imaginations)
National Association of Science Writers (NASW) , for popular and academic authors (but not about academic publications)
PLoS, a nonprofit organization of scientists committed to making the world's scientific and medical literature freely accessible to scientists, researchers, educators, and patient advocates. One of PLOS’s goals is to show that open access publishing is a sustainable way to publish peer-reviewed research.
Open Library of Humanities (OLH), website provides background to, and rationale for, OLH's vision of building a low-cost, sustainable Open Access future for the humanities
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Travel Writing

(see also Outdoor Writers)

Society of American Travel Writers (SATW, the most exclusive of the travel writer organizations--you must have a substantial portfolio of travel writing to be accepted)
International Food Wine & Travel Writers Association (IFWTWA) ( a global network of journalists who cover the hospitality and lifestyle fields, and the people who promote them)
The North American Travel Journalists Association (NATJA) ( “premier professional association of writers, photographers, editors, and tourism professionals dedicated to redefining professional development for the travel industry")
Bay Area Travel Writers (BATW)
Midwest Travel Writers Association (MTWA)
Travel Media Association of Canada (TMAC) (TMAC, for professional travel writers, bloggers, photographers, videographers and tourism industry experts)
TravelWriters UK
British Guild of Travel Writers (BGTW, representing travel writers, photographers, editors and broadcasters)
Australian Society of Travel Writers Incorporated (ASTW, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to promoting ethical and honest travel, and the unbiased reporting of it)
Outdoor Writers Association of America (OWAA, writers, broadcasters, photographers, outdoor industry, and more--and we're all passionate about the outdoors)
Outdoor Writers & Photographers Guild (UK) (writers, authors, photographers, designers, journalists, artists, illustrators, editors, broadcasters, copywriters, content-providers, lecturers, public speakers, consultants, communicators – all specializing in sustainable outdoor activities and the outdoor world).
Travelwriters.com (a professional network of travel writers, editors and members of the public relations community)
Travel Writers Exchange
I want to be a travel writer (YouTube video for the delusional)
The Making of a Travel Writer (Judith Fein on transformative travel -- the difference between a tourist and a traveler, written for Spirituality & Health Magazine)
The Tao of Travel: Enlightenments from Lives on the Road by Paul Theroux and other, underappreciated travel writers (including James Baldwin, Charles Dickens, Graham Greene Ernest Hemingway, Freya Stark, Evelyn Waugh, Eudora Welty, and others)
Todd Pitock on Travel Writing interviewed by Rolf Potts for his blog Vagabonding Travel Writers; his site is FULL of interesting interviews, essays, etc. about travel and travel writing. If these links don't work, go to http:/​/​rolfpotts.com/​index.html and look around. See especially http:/​/​rolfpotts.com/​writers/​.
Why I Became a Travel Writer (John Gimlette, LitHub.com, on doing the not very sensible thing, 2-24-16)
How Not to Be Elizabeth Gilbert (Jessa Crispin, Boston Review, 7-20-15) ""It is a risk, becoming Elizabeth Gilbert...being an obnoxious white lady in brown places....Gilbert has inspired a whole niche of faux travel writing by women, from Cheryl Strayed’s bestselling Wild (2012) to more moderate offerings by Elisabeth Eaves and Kristin Newman. In this genre, the focus of attention is the self, and the beautiful locale becomes the backdrop of the real action, which is interior psychodrama."
Touring 109 Bars in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula (Joe Rhodes, Travel, NY Times, 9-3-15). Here's a travel-book review that takes the travel story up a notch or two. Lovely ending.
10 ways not to be a travel writer (Vivek Wagle, for Lonely Planet)
How to become a travel writer (seriously) (Julie Schwietert, Matador Network, 5-22-13)
Travel Writing by Don George (Lonely Planet)
The Art of Travel Writing: 100 Tips, Tools, & Resources to Get Paid and Published (Kelly Sonora's blog)
10 Things Wrong with Travel Writing (Peter Greenberg, Travel Detective blog, 6-19-13) "Travel news you can use" -- see practical tips in many categories, including Mileage and rewards programs, travel gear, Hotels & accommodations, Budget travel,, Travel insurance, etc.

"Not all those who wander are lost." ~J.R.R. Tolkien
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Organizations That Assist
Artists with Disabilities

(resources described by the National Endowment for the Arts--check that link for more information about the organizations listed below)

Access to the Arts (Louisville, KY)
Accessible Arts (VSA, Kansas's state organization on arts and disabilities)
Alliance for Inclusion in the Arts (formerly Non-Traditional Casting Project)
American Federation of Musicians (provides grants to musicians with disabilities)
Axis Dance Company (strives to integrate contemporary dance and disability culture)
Coalition for Disabled Musicians, Inc.(CDM)
Culture! Disability! Talent! (works to correct disability stereotypes by providing access and opportunities for performers and media-makers with disabilities)
The Dancing Wheels Company & School (one of America's first integrated dance companies, comprising professional dancers with and without disabilities)
Infinity Dance Theater
International Center on Deafness and the Arts
, exploring the experience of disability through literature and the fine arts (United Disability Services)
National Arts & Disability Center (promotes the full inclusion of audiences and artists with disabilities into all facets of the arts)
National Federation of the Blind (voice of the nation's blind)
National Institute of Art and Disabilities
New York Foundation for the Arts (NYFA). NYFA’s online searchable database provides listings of sponsors, art grants, and fellowship programs for the disability community. It also provides a hotline to help artists navigate NYFA’s programs and database (1.800.232.2789).
SignStage (a division of the Community Services for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Department, within the Cleveland Hearing & Speech Center)
Theater Breaking Through Barriers (advances the careers of artists with disabilities in New York City)
VSA Arts, the International Organization on Arts & Disability (based at the Kennedy Center, formerly Very Special Arts, and before that the National Committee - Arts for the Handicapped)
VSA Arts Registry.
Again, see fuller descriptions, addresses, and so on, on the NEA webpage, Organizations that Assist Artists with Disabilities
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Veterans who write

Veterans Writing Project . Offers no-cost seminars and workshops for members of the armed forces, active and reserve, who want to learn about writing in order to tell their stories. Their core curriculum is Ron Capps's book Writing War: A Guide to Telling Your Own Story. Written by a veteran for veterans, it details the elements of craft involved in writing both fiction and non-fiction. The Veterans Writing Project publishes a blog and a literary journal O-Dark-Thirty .
Warrior Voices ( Cecilia Capuzzi Simon, NY Times Education Life, 2-1-13). Veterans learn to write the words they could not speak.
A Million Strong: Helping Them Through (James Dao, NY Times Education, 2-1-13). Serving the surge in military students puts colleges to the test. Teaching veterans to express their experiences helps them heal.
Veterans group, Maxine Hong Kingston together use writing to heal (Justin Berton, San Francisco Chronicle, 1-7-08)
Back From The Brink: War, Suicide, And PTSD (Ron Capps, Health Affairs, July 2010)
Veterans Writing Project: Nation's Heroes Write of Pain, Personal Triumphs (John Bachman, Newsmax, 5-27-12)
Warrior Writers (based in Philadelphia)
Syracuse Veterans’ Writing Group
Veterans' Writing Group of San Diego County
Black Hills Veterans Writing Group
Military Veterans Writing Workshop (Writers Guild Foundation)
The Journal of Military Experience
The Veterans' PTSD Project , which also has as page linking to resources for veterans who want to write
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For cartoonists and comic book writers

Creating Comic Books 101: A Guide to Creating Comic Books (Aaron Albert, ThoughtCo, 2-25-16)
Tools for Comic Creators (Jerry Stratton, Negative Space)
Comics Creators on the Net (Negative Space)
Top 125 Comic Book Writers Master List
The Definitive List of Comic Publisher Submission Guidelines (Jason Thibault, 11-28-16)
Comic Writing Jobs (Upwork, updated constantly)
‘Kingsman’ Artist Dave Gibbons Explains ABCs of Making a Comic Book (John Martin, Observer, 9-28-17) "His new book with writer Tim Pilcher, How Comics Work, is a how-to guide for aspiring pencilers as well as an insight into his working process. "
How Comics Work by Dave Gibbons and Tom Pilcher
Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art by Scott McCloud, also the author of Making Comics: Storytelling Secrets of Comics, Manga and Graphic Novels 'isn't really about how to draw comics: it's about how to make drawings become a story and how cartooning choices communicate meaning to readers. ("There are no rules," he says, "and here they are.") McCloud's cartoon analogue, now a little gray at the temples, walks us through a series of dazzlingly clear, witty explanations (in comics form) of character design, storytelling, words and their physical manifestation on the page, body language and other ideas cartoonists have to grapple with, with illustrative examples drawn from the history of the medium.'~Publishers Weekly
CBR: The World's Top Destination for Comic, Movie & TV News (CBR is a file extension for a comic book or paperback)
The 10 greatest comic book artists of all time (Sammy Maine, Creative Bloq Staff, 3-11-14) He writes about John Romita Jr, Brian Bolland, Will Eisner, Jim Steranko, Osamu Tezuka, Steve Ditko, Frank Miller, Dave Gibbons, Steve Dillon, and Jack Kirby.
Publishers on the Net (Negative Space)
Comic Book Recommended Reading (Negative Space)
List of American comics creators (Wikipedia)
How the Jews Created the Comic Book Industry (Part I: The Golden Age --1933-1955) (Arie Kaplan, Reform Judaism, Online, Fall 2003)
Differences Between a Cartoonist and a Comic Artist ( Janet Stanton Burt, Chron)
Advice to Aspiring Comic Book Creators (Gene Luen Yang, Tor.com, 7-15-14)
Witness and Response: September 11 Acquisitions at the Library of Congress
Digital Storytelling (StoryboardThat) Powerful visual communication, made easy
7 Awesome Free Comic Lettering Fonts for Commercial Use and How to Use Them (Jason Thibault, 1-27-17)
The Top Things Every Comic Book Collector Should Have Or Know About (Aaron Albert, ThoughtCo, 2-26-16)
Comics Scholarship (Negative Space)
• " Laughter is wine for the soul - laughter soft, or loud and deep, tinged through with seriousness - the hilarious declaration made by man that life is worth living."
~Irish playwright Seán O'Casey
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Behind the Cartoonist

by Sarah Wernick

Most people don't realize that cartoonists sometimes buy their funny ideas from gag writers. For the article below, which appeared in the June, 1995 issue of Smithsonian, I interviewed four leading practitioners of this little-known art.

The family farm is rented out now, but Al Batt hasn't shed the dairyman habits of his father. He's up before the sun, “cursed,” as he puts it, “with whatever it is that causes you to rise at an ungodly hour.” From 5:00 to 8:00 every morning, seven days a week, he sits at his desk listening to Minnesota Public Radio and scanning the Wall Street Journal or a book. Occasionally a phrase strikes him, and he writes it on a pad. Today's crop includes: “adopt-a-highway program,” “one out of every six members of Congress is a millionaire,” and “extra-crispy chicken.”

From time to time after the sun comes up, he swivels to check for birds or deer in the backyard that he's gradually turning into wildlife habitat. At some point he returns to the list and writes: “Man looking at invoice says: 'Just my luck to have adopted a highway that's in medical school.'”

Batt is a cartoon caption writer, one of the best. Though he is unknown outside the dwindling circles of his curious profession, chances are you've seen his work. Indeed, if you're in the habit of displaying apt cartoons, a Batt creation might be hanging on your fridge.

The open secret of the cartoon business

Few outsiders realize - though it has long been an open secret in the cartoon business - that many artists buy ideas, on occasion if not regularly. Some simply prefer drawing to writing. But even those who normally produce their own gag lines might turn to caption writers if they hit a dry spell. Or they may need a helping hand because (to give a real-life example) a trade magazine has requested twenty cartoons that would draw a chuckle from a turkey breeder.

Hank Ketcham, creator of Dennis the Menace, says, “Any professional humorist is out of his mind if he doesn't surround himself with talented writers. Otherwise you get to the bottom of your own barrel too quickly.” Currently, most of Ketcham's daily Dennis gags are written by Batt. “He gives me ideas I'd never think of.”

The top captioners are astonishingly prolific. In a week of three-hour sessions. Al Batt comes up with 150 cartoon ideas for the thirty artists with whom he currently works. Under their signatures, his lines appear in every major cartoon outlet, including the New Yorker, the Wall Street Journal, Parade, Omni, Good Housekeeping and Playboy, plus numerous trade journals.

Rex May, who's been called the king of cartoon gag writing, produces 150 to 200 captions a week. Most are written during three 90-minute sessions at a karate dojo near his Indiana home, where he waits while his wife, Jean, and their twelve-year-old son, Bjorn, attend class.

Sitting on a metal folding chair in the stark second-story loft, oblivious to guttural shouts and bodies slamming onto a mat just inches away from his feet, May scribbles captions on a yellow pad at a rate of up to one per minute.
In the early years at the New Yorker

In the glory years of magazine cartooning, which lasted from the 1930s through the 1960s, it was possible to earn a living as a caption writer. That's no longer true, except for the handful of writer-partners who collaborate on popular syndicated comic strips. The cartoon marketplace shrank. Weekly outlets, such as Collier's, Look and the Saturday Evening Post, folded in the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s, and many surviving publications curtailed their use of humorous art. Also, new cartoonists reduced their reliance on captioners.

Lee Lorenz, cartoon editor of the New Yorker since 1973, says, “The biggest change over my career - I started here as a cartoonist in 1958 - is that the generation of cartoonists that came to prominence in the sixties and seventies all do their own writing. For the first twenty-five years of the New Yorker, captions were nearly always written by people other than the artists - writers on the staff or outside gag writers.”

At the New Yorker's now legendary Tuesday art meetings, chronicled by James Thurber and others, editors reviewed not only artists' sketches but also submissions from gag writers and non-preferred cartoonists. “They would buy your idea for eight or ten dollars and give it to one of their regular artists,” recalls Hank Ketcham, who was a non-preferred cartoonist in his pre-Dennis years. “They would say, 'This is a Helen Hokinson gag,' or 'This is a Bill Steig,' or 'This one Peter Arno should do.'”

The distinctive style of the New Yorker cartoon owes as much to the caption writers of those early years as to the artists, according to Lorenz. “E. B. White should get credit for helping establish the tone,” he says. “One of his functions here was sharpening gags, and he was sensationally good at it.” White also wrote many captions, including the line immortalized in a drawing by Carl Rose: A mother says, “It's broccoli, dear,” and her daughter replies, “I say it's spinach, and I say the hell with it.”

The most influential and successful of the New Yorker's freelance gag contributors was Richard McCallister, who continued writing until shortly before his death in April, 1995 at age eighty-six. McCallister supported himself and his family in Connecticut for fifty years on the proceeds from New Yorker cartoon captions. “I didn't need another job,”he said. One week, when he arrived at the New Yorker to deliver his latest submissions, he discovered that six of the cartoons in the current issue had been drawn from his gags. Long after the magazine itself stopped buying ideas from gag writers, McCallister continued to sell captions to individual artists.

His career is not likely to be matched, even by writers who don't limit themselves to a single magazine. Current demand provides only part-time employment for at most 200 or 300 captioners. Some find supplemental humor gigs, such as writing funny greeting cards or slogans for “social expression” products like T-shirts or coffee mugs. Al Batt has a separate career as an insurance agent. Rex May draws his own cartoons under the name “Baloo,” and he's a part-time postal clerk.
Cartoon gag writing's basic rules

Hartland, Minnesota (pop. 270), where Al Batt grew up in the 1950s and still lives today, is a long way from the Manhattan boardrooms and cocktail parties in which so many New Yorker cartoons are set. It's a place where you can get your name in the local newspaper by inviting your sister-in-law for Thursday supper or locking yourself out of your car.

Unlike Woody Allen and other angst-driven comics, Batt enjoyed a happy childhood. His sense of humor was nurtured by a mother who had “the best laugh in the world” and an older brother who kept him supplied with issues of Mad magazine.

Batt's first comical captions, written when he was still in high school, were entries for the Sunday “Foto Funnies” contest in the St. Paul Pioneer Press. “They'd have a clip out of a movie, and you'd send in a caption,” he explains. There were five winners each week, and when a Pioneer Press editor noticed that Al Batt's name had been on the list nearly every week for two years, the paper ran a story about him. Then someone told him he could sell cartoon ideas. Batt learned the basics from the classic book on the subject, Cartoonist's and Gag Writer's Handbook by cartoonist Jack Markow.

For an enterprise that traffics in whimsy, gag writing's rules of the road, as codified by Markow, are surprisingly rigid. Captions are typed on 3-by-5-inch index cards and mailed to cartoonists in batches of ten or more, along with a stamped return envelope. The artist keeps any that seem promising and sends back the rest. If a resulting cartoon is sold, the writer gets a cut, usually about 25 percent. This share could amount to pocket change if the cartoon appears in a small-circulation newspaper, or a low-three-figure check if it's placed in a premier market like the New Yorker or Playboy.

Since ideas that have been passed over by one cartoonist may be accepted by another, Batt and May keep hundreds of gags in circulation. The paperwork - keeping track of gags written, who's seen them, captions held by cartoonists, and cartoons that sell - is onerous. “I used to keep a lot better records,” says Batt. “But I hated doing it, and I figured out that the benefits didn't override my dislike.” In a corner of his basement is a storage unit five and a half feet high, plus a stack of eight large shoe boxes, all packed with gag-stuffed envelopes - about a quarter of a million gags, sold and unsold. Batt says with a sigh, “I always think there's something I should do with them, but I don't.”

Rex May, whose garage and work shed contain a similar accumulation (“I have a whole shoe box of unsold Gerald Ford gags”), has been entering his captions into a computer database for four years - mainly so he can check that a new gag doesn't inadvertently duplicate an earlier one. He estimates that it would take six months of doing nothing else to type the backlog into the database. And why bother? It's much more fun, he says, to come up with new captions.
A changing collaboration

Back in the golden years when the cartoon business was centered in New York City, artist and writer might get together to go over ideas. James Reid Parker, a New Yorker writer, met weekly with Helen Hokinson, whom he supplied with captions for her suburban-matron cartoons. Richard McCallister worked directly with several artists. He recalled, “I'd spend two, three hours a week in Peter Arno's studio. We'd talk about what was happening in the world, what we thought we could satirize.”

One of Arno's most famous cartoons was inspired by an experience McCallister had at a newsreel theater in the 1930s. “I could hear hissing,” he said. “I thought it must be one of the radiators. Then I looked around, and I realized people were hissing the President.” In the cartoon version, two couples, obviously well-to-do, stand outside a mansion and call through a window to their counterparts: “Come along. We're going to the Trans-Lux to hiss Roosevelt.”

These days, cartoonists and gag writers are rarely brought together by art editors, as McCallister and Arno were. A small number of cartoonists solicit gags via professional publications. Usually contact is initiated by would-be gag writers who track down published artists and submit ideas. (Some cartoonists won't admit to using gag writers, not because they're embarrassed at needing assistance, they say, but to avoid being inundated with unusable material.)

Human contact is rare these days, even for enduring partnerships. Harald Bakken, a 21-year veteran of the business who's now semi-retired from gag writing, has met only four of the approximately 100 artists with whom he's worked. As a beginner he received valuable instruction from Randy Glasbergen, a widely published cartoonist who sent back helpful suggestions along with rejected gags. “He was very specific,” Bakken recalls. “He'd explain, 'This won't work because ...' or 'This is great because ...'” For months Bakken had no idea that his mentor was a precocious teenager who'd made his first sale to a national magazine at age fifteen. Then one day Glasbergen wrote, “Congratulate me! I just graduated from high school.”

Personal relationships with other caption writers are uncommon too. There's no professional association; the closest thing to a trade journal is Gag Recap, a monthly newsletter with a few hundred subscribers. Recap, founded forty years ago and published by Al and Jo Gottlieb since 1961, lists hundreds of cartoons that appeared in major outlets during the previous month. Descriptions are terse, with as many as fifty cartoons summarized on a single page. To the Gottliebs and their readers, a parched man clad in tatters, who's searching on his hands and knees for an oasis in the sand, is known simply as “Desert crawler.”

Anonymity precludes public acclaim for gag writers. What passes for applause is the heady experience of finding their creation tacked to an office bulletin board or supermarket cash register. When Harald Bakken took a fiction-writing course in which everyone showed examples of their work, he passed around some cartoons. He says, “I realized it was the first time I'd ever heard a laugh at my captions, and I thought: Wow!”

Every year or so, Rex May and Al Batt - who have never met - break the isolation with a telephone chat, “like Luciano Pavarotti calling Placido Domingo,” May says. What do gag writers talk about? “Of course if there's ever anybody that doesn't pay, that's the first thing,” says Batt. “But there are very few of those.”
The challenge of a quick laugh

Harald Bakken - who has a Harvard PhD and a non-captioning life as a history professor at the University of Massachusetts, Lowell - has given serious thought to humor in general and cartoons in particular. “A magazine cartoonist is supposed to get a laugh from a total stranger in under seven seconds,“ he observes. “No one else who professionally tries to make people laugh is expected to do it quite so quickly.” Moreover, the artist must communicate under less-than-ideal conditions. As Bakken points out in the Cartoonist's Muse: A Guide to Generating and Developing Creative Ideas, a book he wrote with longtime New Yorker cartoonist Mischa Richter, cartoons are viewed not in a gallery but in a doctor's waiting room or perhaps (to use Bakken's delicate description) “in the smallest room of the house.”

It all starts with a premise. Says Randy Glasbergen, “It's not as difficult to be funny as it is to find something to be funny about. Sitting there with a blank piece of paper is hard, but once you zero in on penguins it's easy.” As a beginning cartoonist, Glasbergen challenged himself by selecting random objects on the street and trying to find something funny about them. “I would look at a crack in the sidewalk and think: A family of ants would take pictures of themselves next to it, like the Grand Canyon. Or a nurse would put a Band-Aid on it.”

Almost anything can be a cartoon premise. Rex May says, “I've heard that a general can't play golf without thinking about where he'd put tanks. I see everything in terms of turning it into cartoons.” Glasbergen, who once spent a week with May when the two were working on a project proposal, confirms this. “Rex never put down his notebook; it was chained to his belt. If we were watching television and an ad for Grecian Formula came on, Rex would write a gag about it. Thank goodness,” he adds, “we didn't have yeast infection commercials back then.”

Though few subjects are taboo, a cartoon premise is limited by artistic considerations. Rex May, who sometimes receives submissions from writers who have seen his Baloo cartoons, says with exasperation, “A guy sent me a gag that started 'Man to brother-in-law.' Now, how the hell do you draw a brother-in-law?” Many artists shun ideas that require elaborate illustrations, such as the inside of a cathedral or a full symphony orchestra. “I don't do galley slave gags,” says May. “I'm not going to draw a ship with fifty oars.”

Sometimes the premise for a gag line is supplied by the cartoonist. Doug Sneyd, an artist on contract with Playboy who regularly uses ideas from May, recalls, “Playboy wanted some Christmas gags, so I called Rex one morning. By noon he'd come up with seven or eight, and they wound up buying three.” In one of them a lecherous Santa pauses to reflect: “I was going through that 'naughty or nice' routine for the millionth time, when suddenly it hit me: Who am I to judge?”

The leap from Christmas to a self-questioning Santa is inspired. But professional gag writers don't sit around waiting for inspiration to strike; they use techniques to “work” the premise. Harald Bakken likes to demonstrate with the familiar story of the princess who kisses an enchanted frog and turns him into a prince. “First think about the frog,” he suggests. “Perhaps he has political views on monarchy. What do his friends and his parents think about this? Consider the princess. Is this her first go at kissing a frog?”

Bakken continues: “Move forward in time, after the wedding. The couple could have in-law problems. 'Dammit, Gertrude,' says the prince, "you knew when you married me that my mother was a frog.'” Bakken once sat down and spun twenty-five captions from this fairy tale.

Because so many cartoons are based on stock situations - shipwreck survivors on a tiny island, a lawyer addressing a judge, a child bringing home a report card - most captioners write only brief descriptions on the gag slips they send to artists. Bakken says, “For a while, I made a game of trying to get the non-caption part down to as few words as possible. Instead of something like 'Wife says to husband' I'd just write 'Wife' since that implied a domestic setting and the whole works.” Others, including Rex May, add a sketch. “I put the facial expressions in just the way I want them, which is very hard to describe in words,” says May.

The business side of cartoon captioning

When the week's output is ready for mailing, it's time to decide what goes to whom. In general, top-selling cartoonists get the first look; others see the leftovers. “As Baloo, I'm number four on my own list,” May admits. He currently sends ideas to about twenty artists.

Though he'd like to encourage beginning cartoonists, he's reluctant to work with them. “The postage is murder,” he says. “It costs me at least a buck to mail a batch to somebody. A new kid can be a great cartoonist, but can he sell? Can he take the rejection? Ninety percent of people can't, and after six months they quit.”

Certain ideas - such as Batt's captions for Dennis the Menace - are created for particular artists. Or the gag itself might suggest a certain cartoonist. Bakken recalls, “I once wrote a cartoon with a husband and wife arguing. She says, 'Let's face it, Ralph. The only time we meet each other's needs is when we fight.' It was a very grim idea. I thought immediately: That's for Joe Mirachi. He had a very mordant sense of humor. I knew he'd take it and sell the cartoon to the New Yorker - which is what happened.”

Rex May comments, “Some gags are best drawn by me or somebody else who doesn't draw ears on people unless they need them; others are best drawn by Doug Sneyd or some other fine artist.” He cites a caption that he wrote for a Sneyd cartoon: a woman turns down a marriage proposal, saying, “It would never work, Rodney. You're a Benny Hill person and I'm a Monty Python person.” Says May, “If I did that, it would be mildly amusing. But Doug drew it elaborately, with a beautiful woman and a beautiful setting, and the absurdity worked so much better.”

A gag's content may rule out certain artists. Some won't accept X-rated material; others would have little interest in a caption geared to a trade journal. Says Bakken, “One cartoonist told me, 'Never ever send me horse gags; I can't draw horses.' Another said, 'Don't send me anything that has to show the inside of an automobile under the hood. I cannot draw that.'”

Because most freelance cartoonists sell to many publications, the submission process can take a long time. Says Batt, “Bo Brown, a wonderful cartoonist and a wonderful guy, will send you a check for a gag you wrote fifteen years ago. He never gives up. He'll say, 'Here - I sent this to 946 places and somebody finally bought it.'”

Ideally, the final product delivers more than a tickle. Rex May reflects, “I doubt I'd be doing this if I didn't have convictions. I like to make people laugh - but after they've laughed, I want them to think about why they laughed and to reexamine how they've been looking at things. If it's funny, there's something serious at base.”

POSTSCRIPT: For more on cartoon caption writing, see The Cartoonist's Muse: A Guide to Generating and Developing Creative Ideas, by Mischa Richter and Harald Bakken (McGraw-Hill, 1992). Though this delightful and informative book is now out of print, new and used copies are usually available on Amazon.com

© 1995 and 2004, Sarah Wernick. This article is not to be reproduced or distributed in any manner or medium without the written permission of Sarah Wernick's estate. Reprinted here by permission of Willie Lockeretz, Sarah's very funny husband.